Implementing Bologna 2


Guy Haug, Howard Davies, Sir Peter Scott, Tim Birtwistle, Holiday Hart McKiernan, Daniel Denecke


15,99 € (99 Seiten, PDF)


  • The Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy: Mutual Dependencies

    Guy Haug

    This article examines the origins of the Bologna process, and the factors and actors which have contributed to shaping its priorities and the main stages of its development. It emphasises the mutual links between the Bologna process involving 45 countries and the higher education policy of the EU 25 through its Lisbon Strategy, showing how the change agendas of both processes complement and reinforce each other. It also examines the geographical expansion of the Bologna process, from 4 countries in 1998 to 45 in 2005, and links it with the vision and support provided by the Council of Europe. Overall, it shows that Bologna and Lisbon are both contributing in a mutually beneficial way to the creation of a Europe of Knowledge.

  • The Bologna Process and the Recognition of Professional Qualifications

    An Update on Developments

    Howard Davies

    The interface between the Bologna process and Directive 2005/36/EC on the Recognition of Professional Qualifications is complex and shifting. This article provides an update of material previously published in the Bologna Handbook in September 2006 (A 3.3-1). Since that date, the Directive has come into force, while at the same time the three-tier Bologna qualifications structure has been progressively consolidated in National Qualifications Frameworks. These in turn are being referenced to the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning. Meanwhile, academic, professional, regulatory and student bodies have become increasingly aware of the lack of alignment between Bologna and the Directive. Discussion has focused on qualification structures, competence-based and student-centred learning, recognition of prior learning in a lifelong frame, continuing professional education and quality assurance. These issues effectively constitute the agenda for a ‘re-engineering’ of the Directive, which – in many instances – Member States have failed to transpose into national law. A window of opportunity is available, since the review period fixed at the time of the passing into law of the Directive is scheduled for 2012. In 2009, with the advent of a new Parliament and a new Commission, an updated overview of the situation is appropriate.

  • The External face of the Bologna Process: The European Higher Education Area in a Global Context

    Sir Peter Scott

    This article argues that the global relevance of the Bologna process continues to grow as the process develops. The article is divided into three main sections: an overview of global challenges which the external projection of European higher education is designed to address; the responses of higher education at European, national and institutional levels; and the Europe-based programmes, i.e. national, inter-governmental and EU, which comprise Europe’s particular response – whether formally included in the Bologna process or not.

  • Trans-Atlantic “Ping-Pong” & the Bologna Process

    Tim Birtwistle, Holiday Hart McKiernan

    This article examines the US systems, with a view to identifying elements of the Bologna Process that might be adapted to fit the US context and taken up by the sector or by parts of it. Its main focus is on the adaptation of the procedures pioneered by the successful Tuning Educational Structures in Europe Project, which is currently being undertaken by the pilot Tuning USA Project. The article considers the potential that exists for some form of national degree framework in the United States.

  • The Bologna Process, Three-year Degrees, and U.S. Graduate Admissions

    Daniel Denecke

    The author describes recent international student trends in U.S. graduate programmes, based on the results of established surveys of the leading graduate schools. The emerging response to changing patterns of graduate applications are analysed, together with the impact of the Bologna process on U.S. graduate admissions policies. Particular attention is devoted to the issue of how the new Bologna first cycle degree – the “Bologna bachelor” – is perceived in the U.S.

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