Understanding Degree Structures and Learning Outcomes


Christian Tauch, Jürgen Kohler, Stephen Adam, Elpida Keravnou-Papailiou, Adra Balissa, Declan Kennedy, Áine Hyland, Norma Ryan


15,99 € (125 Seiten, PDF)


  • Understanding the Characteristics of European Degree Structures

    The Reintroduction of Bachelor and Master Degrees

    Christian Tauch

    This article examines the background to the decision in Bologna in 1999 to (re)introduce the Bachelor and Master degree structures across Europe. It introduces the main characteristics of these degree structures, as agreed within the Bologna process, and the relevance of these to employability. The use of learning outcomes and qualifications frameworks are considered in this context also. Finally, the article mentions some of challenges which remain regarding the effective introduction of Bachelor and Master degrees across Europe.

  • Typology of the Degree Structure

    Jürgen Kohler

    This article outlines the purposes, methodology, and challenges linked to the introduction of a common European degree structure which is shared in substance and not merely in nomenclature. To that end, the concept of the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area, as introduced by the Bergen Communiqué, and its significance for national qualifications frameworks is focused upon, examining the design of qualifications frameworks around aspects of cycle and level, workload, learning outcomes, competences and profile, with specific reference to the so-called Dublin Descriptors. These technical features will be embedded in an analysis of the political background and aspirations behind the drive towards a shared typology of a European degree structure. A survey of future issues arising from the concept and the underlying political issues may eventually help to identify key areas of the ongoing debate.

  • An Introduction to Learning Outcomes

    A Consideration of the Nature, Function and Position of Learning Outcomes in the Creation of the European Higher Education Area

    Stephen Adam

    This chapter explores the nature and functions of learning outcomes in the context of the Bologna educational reforms. Section 1 explains what they are and where they originate. Section 2 explores their practical application and multiple functions, and provides a schematic summary. Section 3 places them in the context of current pedagogical reform and highlights their relationship to curriculum development - teaching learning and assessment. Section 4 establishes their centrality to the Bologna process and the successful completion of the European Higher Education Area. Finally, the concluding section 5 points to some important issues associated with their application in the immediate future.

  • Flexibility Through Learning Outcomes: Implications for Quality

    Elpida Keravnou-Papailiou

    Flexibility in learning is an acknowledged necessity for a knowledge society. This flexibility has been developing in an incremental fashion (discrete cycles, credits, distance learning, learning outcomes). Full flexibility in learning means that horizontal and vertical movement between different learning settings (formal, non-formal, informal) is supported and recognised, and that higher level qualifications can be obtained in this way. It is widely believed that full flexibility can be secured through the use of learning outcomes. In this perspective, its viability depends critically on whether the same or at least comparable learning outcomes are potentially achievable in widely differing learning settings and whether the potential means for assessing such learning outcomes can credibly assure quality. This paper examines the viability of the proposition of full flexibility in learning with respect to quality, suggesting that there is an urgent need to agree on European standards and guidelines for quality assurance in respect of non-formal and informal learning settings.

  • Learning Outcomes and Competences

    Declan Kennedy, Áine Hyland, Norma Ryan

    There is wide variation in the literature regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the term competence. This interpretation ranges from a description of competence in terms of performance and skills acquired by training to a broad overarching view that encompasses knowledge, understanding, skills, abilities and attitudes. Due to the lack of clarity of the concept of competence, assessment of competences can be very difficult. Some authors warn against associating competence exclusively with skills, others distinguish between the terms competence and competency whilst others treat these terms as being synonymous. The essential problem appears to be that these terms are liberally used as general terms to refer to various aspects of job performance without any attempt being made to give precise definitions of the terms. While various efforts have been made to arrive at a single definition of the term competence, no agreement has been reached and there is still wide variation of meaning between various cultures and between different professions. This is in contrast to the clear definition of the concept of learning outcomes found in the literature. It is recommended that if the term competence is being used, the definition of competence being used in the particular context should be stated and also that competences should be written using the vocabulary of learning outcomes.

  • Learning Outcomes as an Instrument for Mobility

    A Survey Through the Eyes of a Student

    Adra Balissa

    The research was conducted in a primary fashion in order to assess the extent to which a student from a given Bologna Process signatory country can obtain information from a higher education institution (HEI) in another signatory country via the internet. The research was conducted by examining the websites of different higher education institutions across ten countries, nine of which were Bologna signatory countries, while the tenth country was used as a benchmark for the rest. The results focused on the language in which the information on the website was provided, the level of implementation of the three cycle system by the HEI, the information provided for foreign students in particular, the level of adoption of the ECTS credit system, and finally special attention was paid to the level of implementation of learning outcomes each HEI.

Weitere Titel in dieser Reihe

Diese Cookie-Richtlinie wurde erstellt und aktualisiert von der Firma CookieFirst.com.