Using the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)


Robert Wagenaar, Volker Gehmlich, Elpida Keravnou-Papailiou


12,99 € (87 Seiten, PDF)


  • An Introduction to the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)

    Robert Wagenaar

    This article provides an introduction to ECTS. The background to the system as well as its key features are explained and discussed, including the links to concepts such as student workload, learning outcomes, competences, accumulation, transfer, student centred systems, and the ECTS rating system. The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, abbreviated as ECTS, is the most widely used credit system in Europe. Many European countries have now adopted the system as their national system and have embedded the system in their law for higher education. ECTS is a student-centred system based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a programme of study. These objectives should be specified in terms of learning outcomes, which in turn are expressed in competences to be acquired. This concept is reflected in the ECTS ‘key features’.

  • The Added Value of Using ECTS

    Volker Gehmlich

    This article examines the various stages in the development of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS), and builds on the outcomes of these to highlight the added value of using ECTS at institutional level. A particular emphasis is put on practical guidance regarding how to introduce and use ECTS within a higher education institution.

  • Implementing ECTS at the University of Cyprus

    Elpida Keravnou-Papailiou

    The article reports on experience in applying the Bologna reforms at the University of Cyprus, particularly in implementing the ECTS requirements (workload, learning outcomes) to all programmes of study, under all three Bologna cycles, for both transferring and accumulating credits. The ultimate objective is to have a fully-fledged student-centred, learning-oriented education methodology, comprehensively applied to all programmes. The article focuses primarily on the methodology used for implementing the reforms, including the obstacles encountered and how they were overcome or side-stepped. Through the implementation of the reforms, it transpired that the implications of these changes were much more far reaching than could have been initially perceived. The reforms will be fully accepted when the direct benefits of having a transparent and consistent system of learning outcomes and student assessment methods will impact at large on the students themselves, irrespective of any additional benefits from mobility and recognition.

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